Module 3: Pharmacological Interventions: Pharmacotherapy (1.25 hours)

Welcome to the third Module of the CADDRA Introduction to ADHD for Healthcare Professionals Learning Program.

This section is available for free to all CADDRA members.

Module 3 has been approved by the College of Family Physicians, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the Canadian Psychological Association for 1.25 credit hours. A CME certificate can be requested upon completion of this Module.

Non-members will be charged a fee for this Module. This fee is $35CAD per module or $120CAD for all four modules.


Joan Flood

Doron Almagor

1. Identify patients who would benefit from ADHD pharmacotherapy

2. Troubleshoot issues to ensure optimal treatment response

3. Appropriately use ADHD medication according to CADDRA recommendations.

  1. Arnold, L. Eugene. “Methyiphenidate vs. amphetamine: Comparative review.” Journal of Attention Disorders 3.4 (2000): 200-211.
  2. Arnold, L. Eugene, et al. “Effect of treatment modality on long-term outcomes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.” PloS one 10.2 (2015).
  3. Arnsten, Amy FT, and Steven R. Pliszka. “Catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical function: relevance to treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 99.2 (2011): 211-216.
  4. Bush, George, et al. “The counting Stroop: a cognitive interference task.” Nature protocols 1.1 (2006): 230-233.
  5. CADDRA – Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance: Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines, 4.1 Edition, Toronto ON; CADDRA, 2020.
  6. Castellanos, F. Xavier, and Rosemary Tannock. “Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3.8 (2002): 617-628.
  7. Chang, Zheng, et al. “Association between medication use for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk of motor vehicle crashes.” JAMA psychiatry 74.6 (2017): 597-603.
  8. Curatolo, Paolo, Elisa D’Agati, and Romina Moavero. “The neurobiological basis of ADHD.” Italian journal of pediatrics 36.1 (2010): 79.
  9. Dalsgaard, Søren, et al. “Long‐term criminal outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 23.2 (2013): 86-98.
  10. Faraone, S. V., et al. “Using a meta-analysis to draw conclusions about ADHD medication effects (Poster).” 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. San Francisco, California. 2003.
  11. Faraone, Stephen V., et al. “Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.” Biological psychiatry 57.11 (2005): 1313-1323.
  12. Halmøy, Anne, et al. “Occupational outcome in adult ADHD: impact of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment: a cross-sectional study of 414 clinically diagnosed adult ADHD patients.” Journal of attention disorders 13.2 (2009): 175-187.
  13. Humphreys, Kathryn L., Timothy Eng, and Steve S. Lee. “Stimulant medication and substance use outcomes: a meta-analysis.” JAMA psychiatry 70.7 (2013): 740-749.
  14. Keilow, Maria, Anders Holm, and Peter Fallesen. “Medical treatment of Attention DeficitChen, Mu-Hong, et al. “Sexually transmitted infection among adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide longitudinal study.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 57.1 (2018): 48-53.
  15. Kessler, R. C., et al. “spencer T, Ustun TB, Walters EE, Zaslavsky AM (2006) The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.” Am J Psychiatry 163: 716-723.
  16. Kooij, JJ Sandra, et al. “Internal and external validity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a population-based sample of adults.” Psychological medicine 35.6 (2005): 817-827.
  17. Lichtenstein, Paul, et al. “Medication for attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder and criminality.” New England Journal of Medicine 367.21 (2012): 2006-2014.
  18. Quinn, Patrick D., et al. “ADHD medication and substance-related problems.” American journal of psychiatry 174.9 (2017): 877-885.
  19. Surman, Craig BH, ed. ADHD in adults: A practical guide to evaluation and management. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
  20. Surman, Craig BH, et al. “Do pharmaceuticals improve driving in individuals with ADHD? A review of the literature and evidence for clinical practice.” CNS drugs 31.10 (2017): 857-866.
  21. Thapar, Anita, et al. “Genetic basis of attention deficit and hyperactivity.” The british journal of psychiatry 174.2 (1999): 105-111.
  22. Vincent A, My Brain Still Needs Glasses. Juniper Publishings. (2017).
  23. Wilens, Timothy E. “Drug therapy for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Drugs 63.22 (2003): 2395-2411.
  24. Wilens, Timothy E., Thomas J. Spencer, and Joseph Biederman. “A review of the pharmacotherapy of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.” Journal of attention disorders 5.4 (2001): 189-202.

Feel free to post in the ‘Ask an Expert’ forum (look in the left-hand menu) with any questions regarding applying the content of this module to your own practice. You will receive a response from one of our Experts.

This program is fully funded by CADDRA – Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance and has not received any external financial or in-kind support.

The development and planning of this learning activity was completed by an independent scientific planning committee. Content of this learning program is based on quality scientific evidence.

Dr. Joan Flood
Family Physician, The Shoniker Clinic, Scarborough
Board Member, The Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (CADDRA)
​Chair, Advocacy Committee, CADDRA
Relationships with financial sponsors
Click here for Conflict of Interest Declaration
Honoraria, speaker fees, and unrestricted educational grants from the following companies: Purdue, Janssen Ortho, and Shire. Board Member and Advisory Committee Chair, CADDRA

Dr. Doron Almogor
Director, The Possibilities Clinic, Toronto, Ontario
Chair, Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (CADDRA), Toronto, Ontario
​Contributor and editor (4th edition), Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines

Relationships with financial sponsors
Click here for Conflict of Interest Declaration
Advisory Board: Janssen Inc., Purdue Pharma, Shire
Speakers Bureau: Janssen Inc., Purdue, Shire
CADDRA Board Member (travel costs)

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Course Includes

  • 7 Lessons
  • 8 Topics
  • 6 Quizzes
  • Course Certificate